What Are Blood Cell Disorders?
The blood cell disorder refers to the condition in which there is an issue with your red blood cells, white blood cells, or plasma. All of these components of blood are essential for clot formation and are present within the bone marrow. Blood disorders can also affect the fluid portion called plasma of the blood.
Let us consider the function of each of the constituents –
- Red Blood Cells: transport oxygen to the body tissues
- White Blood Cells: helps fight infections
- Platelets: helps in blood clotting
What Are The Symptoms Of Blood Cell Disorders?
Symptoms of red blood cell disorders depend upon the type of disease you have. Some of the common symptoms of red blood disorders include:
- Muscle weakness
- Fast heart rate
- Inability to concentrate due to lack of oxygen in the blood
Some of the common symptoms of white blood cell disorders include:
- Chronic infections
- Unintended weight loss
- A general feeling of sickness
Symptoms of platelet-related disorders include:
- Bleeding of the gums or nose
- Skin bruises
- Slow healing of cuts or wounds
- Blood that doesn’t clot after a cut or an injury
Red Blood Cell Disorders
Anemia is one of the most common red blood disorders. It causes when there is an absence of an essential type of mineral-iron in the blood. Your body requires oxygen for producing hemoglobin, which helps in the transportation of blood from the lungs to the rest of the body. Anemia can be of following different types:
Iron-deficiency Anemia: As the name suggests, it happens because of the deficiency of iron in the body. As your RBCs are not carrying a sufficient amount of oxygen, you may feel short of breath or have other similar feelings.
Sickle Cell Anemia: In this, the affected RBCs take the shape of a sickle. The presence of the unusual hemoglobin in the sickle cell anemic patient makes the RBCs rigid and curved.
The sickle-shaped cells can carry comparatively less amount of oxygen than the healthy cells. It can also create a blockage in your blood vessels, thereby obstructing the flow of blood to other organs.
Pernicious Anemia: It is a kind of autoimmune condition in which your body becomes incapable of absorbing adequate amounts of vitamin B6. It lowers the counts of RBCs in your blood. The reason why it is called damaging is simple. The condition is hazardous and often turns fatal. Taking a vitamin B12 shot can help cure the disease nowadays.
Aplastic Anemia: People of any age group can have aplastic anemia. It is a severe but rare condition in which your bone marrow stops producing new cells. It may make you feel fatigued and hamper the ability of your body to cope with infections.
Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: When cells get damaged or die, our body produces new cells that take their place. But in a person with autoimmune hemolytic anemia, the immune system destroys cells at a rapid pace, and the body is unable to replace them.
Thalassemia is a type of inherited disease, which means that it can pass on from parents to their offspring. In this condition, the body either produces an insufficient or abnormal form of hemoglobin. A large number of red blood cells get destroyed, and it can bring about the disease called anemia.
It can give rise to –
- Enlarged spleen
- Heart disorders
- Bone distortions
- Retarded growth and development in children
Polycythemia Vera: It is a type of blood cancer that progresses very slowly. The bone marrow makes excessive red blood cells that make the blood thick resulting in slow blood flow. You may also need to face certain complications like blood clots that can lead to a stroke or heart attack.
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White Blood Cell Disorders
Leukemia: The cancer of blood or bone marrow is called leukemia. In this, the white blood cells within the bone marrow multiply rapidly. Leukemia can be acute or chronic. Acute leukemia progresses quickly, but are curable. Whereas, chronic leukemia doesn’t progress very soon but cannot be cured. Treatments are available that you can utilize to get relieved from the symptoms.
Lymphoma: It is a type of cancer that starts at lymphocytes(infection-fighting cells). These cells are present in various organs like lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, bone marrow, etc. In the person having lymphoma, lymphocytes change and grow beyond control.
Myelodysplastic syndrome(MDS): MDS is a group of several different types of cancer in which the immature cells of the bone marrow cannot develop and become mature. Some examples of MDS have no known cause, while others happen due to chemical exposure or some other cancer treatments.
One of the following three abnormalities gives rise to platelet disorders –
- Not having enough platelets
- Having too many platelets
- Having platelets that don’t clot appropriately
Platelet disorders mainly happen due to genetic conditions. Some of the most common ones include:
Hemophilia: Hemophilia is a rare disease in which blood doesn’t clot in a usual manner as it lacks an adequate amount of blood clotting proteins. In case of an injury, you will bleed for a longer duration as you would bleed without hemophilia.
Von Willebrand Disease: It happens when the von Willebrand factor(significant clotting protein) goes missing or defective.
Primary Thrombocethamia: It is a rare blood clotting disorder that causes bone marrow to make too many platelets. The condition is also referred to as essential thrombocythemia.
Tags: Blood disorders symptoms, Red blood cell disorders, White blood cell disorders